The idea that parasitic infections are always accompanied by a characteristic clinical picture is false. Usually, a pinworm infestation occurs in the absence of worrisome symptoms. The treatment is not carried out in time can lead to very unfortunate consequences, including: poisoning the body, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and other internal organs. Tests to detect parasites will help identify the presence of foreign organisms and choose the best treatment option. Systematic research is needed for both adults and children.
Timely analysis will help avoid various complications when the body is damaged by parasites.
In the vast majority of cases, the body is infected with parasites accompanied by characteristic symptoms, which are quite difficult to notice. But in the early stages of helminth infestation, the clinical picture may not be realistic. To determine the presence of protozoa in the human body during this period, it is possible to analyze only parasites.
Among the main signs, whose presence literally forces a person to be examined for parasites, are:
- Anal itching, crying mainly at night, due to parasites that have laid eggs.
- Digestive disorders, manifested by constipation, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, heartburn.
- Rapid fatigue, coma, weakness.
- The body's immunity and resistance are reduced, susceptible to infectious diseases and viruses.
- General discomfort, pallor of the skin of the face and body, which is caused by the lack of useful trace elements in the body, which the parasites absorb.
- Loss of appetite or, conversely, excessive appetite.
- Reduce weight to the critical level. Usually this only happens if the parasites have attacked the body for a long time and the number of individuals is close to a critical level.
Due to non-compliance with the basic rules of personal hygiene, children of a younger age are most susceptible to parasitic infections. But parasites in adults are also not excluded. The process of helminth infection is much easier than many people imagine.
To avoid complications and worsening, you should have the tests done at least once or twice a year. We recommend conducting a study in the summer and fall, as that is the time when peak incidence is most likely to occur.
Many effective methods
Modern practical medicine offers a wide range of different tests for the presence of different types of parasites in adults and children, each with clear advantages and disadvantages. To get results as close to confidence as possible, it is recommended to perform multiple types of analysis at the same time. This approach will help identify parasites even in the early stages of infection.
Among the most effective and frequently used methods are:
- stool analysis;
- hemolymph analysis;
- Check for stains or scratches.
In some cases, when helminth infestations are detected, some additional studies are required. Methods such as computed tomography, x-ray, and ultrasound can be used. The need is due to the fact that the activity of the parasite often leads to damage to internal organs and the development of cumulative diseases.
Blood tests for the presence of most types of parasites in the body are the most reliable compared to other methods and allow you to detect infection even at an early stage. Among the most commonly used is the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which is based on the detection of changes in the composition of hemolymph caused by the parasite.
The characteristic pathological changes in the blood are due to the excretion of parasitic residues and subsequent intoxication of the body. In response to such factors, the body's immune system begins to produce antibodies. It is their number that determines the degree of infestation of the helminth or its absence.
The study of the composition of the blood allows you to determine not only the penetration of helminths, but also the types of parasites, their approximate number, the degree of damage to the body. To obtain the most accurate results, you should follow certain rules about the blood donation procedure: it is better to take biomaterials only on an empty stomach and only in the morning.
The reliability of the enzyme immunoassay is about 90% and allows you to identify the largest number of known parasite species. Also, among the advantages of studying hemolymph is the ability to identify protozoa that are not parasitic in the gut but in other organs, such as the lungs or liver.
Traditionally, fecal analysis is used to identify parasites in the human body. This method is only reliable if at least 60-90 days have passed since the infection. In addition, according to the research results on feces, one can detect only in the body the parasites that can only parasitize the intestines, that is: roundworms, flukes, tapeworms.
As a rule, the analysis of feces for parasites is carried out at least two to three times with an interval of several days. This measure is necessary to obtain more reliable results. Performing a single study often results in a false negative, which is due to the specific characteristics of the life cycle of the parasite.
The analytical procedure includes stool study for the presence of eggs, larvae, as well as adults. In the event that at the time of stool sampling there are no eggs of the parasite in the biological material, the test will give a false negative result despite the fact that there is a parasite infection. To increase the likelihood of reliable results, you should follow a few basic rules regarding the delivery of biomaterials:
- Manure collection should be done in the morning, no later than 11 a. m. local time.
- The optimal volume of biomaterial is one-third of the standard container for analysis, which can be purchased at any pharmacy, but less may be needed.
- They made such an analysis when the patient itch all over the body and the skin around the anus. This sign shows that in addition to parasites, there are also helminth eggs in the human body.
- Biological materials should be handed over to the laboratory within 30-40 minutes from the time of collection. In this case, the result is as close to the confidence as possible. If this is not possible, the biological material should be stored in the refrigerator.
Stool testing for parasites should be done along with other tests for helminths. Only two or more tests will give reliable results. Parasite analysis should be repeated to detect helminth infestations at least once a year. In addition, screening for parasites is recommended when any eating disorder is present.
The study of debris from the folds of tissues of the anus is one of the simplest and least reliable. In this way, it is possible to determine whether parasites are present in the body only if the time of material collection coincides with the spawning period of the parasite. However, it is the most commonly used method for detecting helminthic infestations in children at a younger age.
In this procedure, biomaterial is removed from the folds of tissue in the test subject's anus using sterile adhesive tape or a cotton swab. To obtain the most reliable results, the analysis should be performed at least three to four times.
Reliability of the study
In order to obtain reliable results in any analysis for the presence of parasites, it is initially required to comply with all the rules regarding the collection of test material. In addition, it is advisable to conduct at least two types of studies simultaneously, through which individuals can be identified not only in the intestine, but also in other organs and tissues.
Among the less effective studies for reliability were the stool and anal curettage study. This is because the results of such analyzes can be falsely negative, both because of the absence of eggs and adults in the stool, and because of a basic lack of attention by the laboratory assistant conducting the analysis.
How to check the presence of helminths in the body for the most accurate results? Which parasite tests are the most reliable? In order to timely identify helminthiasis and start using appropriate therapy, it is necessary to observe a few basic rules:
- The procedure to pass any test must be carried out according to the prescribed rules.
- Any type of study should be repeated at least twice with an interval of several days.
- Biological material should be collected for stool analysis when symptoms such as anal itching and burning are present
Remember that adults should be examined once a year. Children, especially the younger age group, are at risk, so they should be checked at least every three months.
Cost of the procedure
Tests of biological materials for the presence of parasites in the body can be performed in most medical facilities, both public and commercial. But it should be noted that blood tests for parasites are not done in every clinic, while simpler tests are done almost everywhere.
How much will this type of research cost? The cost of a single blood test can vary considerably depending on the area and type of facility. The cost of stool testing is somewhat lower.
Periodic inspection of biological materials is an important and necessary measure. Timely detection of parasites will allow to eliminate poisoning of the body and apply timely treatment. Inadequate treatment can not only lead to intoxication, that is, poisoning of the body with helminthic waste products, but also provoke the development of inflammatory diseases in the internal organs. organs.